COVID-19-Related Misinformation on Social Media: A Systematic Review

This review focuses on misinformation that appeared early in the pandemic. During this phase, little was known about the virus, such as how it spread or how infected people could be treated most effectively.

Source: COVID-19-Related Misinformation on Social Media: A Systematic Review

    COVID-19 Vaccine Perceptions: A 15 Country Study

    The aim of this study is to investigate public knowledge and perceptions of both the COVID-19 pandemic itself and COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among adults (aged 18 years and above) in 15 African countries.

    This study will help identify knowledge gaps, beliefs and attitudes that can help inform Africa CDC as well as other immunization stakeholders in their strategies for supporting the roll out of COVID-19 vaccines in the continent.

    The survey of public opinion was conducted in 15 countries across Africa between August and December 2020.

    Source: COVID-19 Vaccine Perceptions: A 15 Country Study

      Field Experience Summary: Rumour Management, Nigeria

      Misinformation on COVID-19 in rural Nigeria was widespread. Rumours included that only those in cities, Egyptians, the rich, or people over 40 could get sick. In addition, rumours spread that alcohol consumption could prevent COVID-19 (based on the use of alcohol hand sanitiser), or that eating raw garlic could prevent it. While some of the stories and information were in the public domain prior to ActionAid Nigeria’s intervention in these communities, the precise levels misinformation in the community were brought to light during a preliminary visit to understand the needs of the population. The rumours meant that people were not taking proper precautions to avoid contracting the virus. In each of their communities they visited ActionAid Nigeria found that there was no social distancing, markets were full and worship centres crowded.

      In addition, ActionAid Nigeria noticed that COVID-19 awareness campaigns focused heavily on urban centres, and that radio channels and posters tended to target urban populations. Many rural communities lack network coverage, meaning they had limited access to the media campaigns ongoing. They found that in rural villages, many people were not even aware that COVID-19 existed, and that life was carrying on as normal. The objectives of ActionAid Nigeria’s programme were to raise awareness of COVID-19 symptoms, prevention, and services, as well as to dispel myths.

      To manage rumours and misinformation, ActionAid Nigeria have been running a ‘door to door’ campaign in rural communities. They have a team of 14 people in each community, including nine from their existing community team and five community facilitators.

      Source: Field Experience Summary: Rumour Management, Nigeria

        COVID-19 Communications: Promoting Prevention Measures and Vaccine Confidence

        The National Foundation for Infectious Diseases (NFID) convened a multidisciplinary group of experts at a virtual roundtable in January 2021 to share research, insights, and best practices for improving and harmonizing communication to the public about the evolving COVID-19 pandemic and the importance of following evidence-based public health prevention measures.

        Source: COVID-19 Communications: Promoting Prevention Measures and Vaccine Confidence

          Maternal, Newborn, and Reproductive Health and COVID-19: Adaptations, Successes, Challenges, and Next Steps. An Expert Consultation

          This report presents key findings and recommendations from a series of four discussion-based expert consultation workshops. These consultations—organized by the READY initiative and the Inter Agency Working Group on Reproductive Health in crises (IAWG)—brought Maternal, Newborn, and Reproductive Health and infectious disease stakeholders together to review MNRH in the preparedness/outbreak response context and identify priorities for the ongoing pandemic.

          This report compiles and shares participants’ experiences and lessons learned, and identifies challenges and gaps in implementing humanitarian MNRH services in COVID-19 across the world. The recommendations developed from these consultations are intended to support MNRH services and actors to improve access and quality of care to vulnerable populations in future waves of COVID-19 and in future outbreaks.

          Source: Maternal, Newborn, and Reproductive Health and COVID-19: Adaptations, Successes, Challenges, and Next Steps. An Expert Consultation

            Behavioural Considerations for Acceptance and Uptake of COVID-19 Vaccines: WHO Technical Advisory Group on Behavioural Insights and Sciences for Health

            This is a report from a meeting held in October 2020 to discuss behavioral considerations relating to vaccine acceptance and uptake.

            The discussion focused on a series of key questions around achieving high and equitable uptake of vaccines through evidence-based and behaviourally informed strategies. This meeting report is the product of the discussion held by WHO TAG members during the meeting. It covers only the topics that were addressed at the meeting.

            The study introduces the topic by stating that behavioral research identifies three categories of drivers of vaccine uptake, in addition to people having the necessary knowledge:

            1. an enabling environment
            2. social influences
            3. motivation

            The three drivers interact and overlap, depending on contexts; however, for the purpose of understanding the problem and identifying strategies, it is helpful to keep the categories separate. An appreciation of each driver leads to its own set of insights and interventions, or mix of interventions, which will often vary across communities.

            Source: Behavioural Considerations for Acceptance and Uptake of COVID-19 Vaccines: WHO Technical Advisory Group on Behavioural Insights and Sciences for Health

              Readability of Online COVID-19 Health Information: A Comparison between Four English Speaking Countries

              The general public is faced with a plethora of misinformation regarding COVID-19 and the readability of online information has an impact on their understanding of the disease.

              The accessibility of online healthcare information relating to COVID-19 is unknown. The authors ought to evaluate the readability of online information relating to COVID-19 in four English speaking regions: Ireland, the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States, and compare readability of website source provenance and regional origin.

              Source: Readability of Online COVID-19 Health Information: A Comparison between Four English Speaking Countries

                An Approach for Monitoring and Evaluating Community Mitigation Strategies for COVID-19

                This document describes the approach of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)’s approach to evaluating community mitigation strategies and provides overarching considerations to support state, territorial, or local health departments, tribal health organizations, or others in monitoring and evaluating COVID-19 community mitigation strategies, including a logic model, suggested monitoring and evaluation questions, and potential data sources.

                The approach considers outcomes that minimize COVID-19 morbidity and associated mortality, effects of community mitigation strategies on long-standing health disparities and social determinants of health, and how communities thrive socially, emotionally, and economically.

                Source: An Approach for Monitoring and Evaluating Community Mitigation Strategies for COVID-19

                  COVID-19: Long Term Health Effects

                  This guidance from Public Health England explains that around 10% of mild coronavirus (COVID-19) cases who were not admitted to a hospital have reported symptoms lasting more than 4 weeks. A number of hospitalized cases reported continuing symptoms for 8 or more weeks following discharge.

                  It suggests that patients recovering from COVID-19 infection should speak to their family doctor about local care pathways for support and assessment of any long-term symptoms or health problems.

                  Source: COVID-19: Long Term Health Effects

                    COVID-19: Insights on Face Mask Use Global Review

                    This report looks at behaviors and perceptions around the use of face masks. It uses the latest available survey responses for each country between May 14th and June 4th, 2020. All responses have been aggregated to offer a global view of key insights related to COVID-19 and face mask use.

                    Source: COVID-19: Insights on Face Mask Use Global Review